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I.                    Values- are things ( an object, a person or an idea which are     

                         considered  important or a  way of behaving) serving 

                         as   guiding principles which  influences our behavior

                         and   determine whether or not such behavior  

                        seems worthwhile. They are standards, the determiners of 

                        our attitudes, opinions and perceptions. In simpler terms,

                        what a person

                         values is what he consider himself as a worthwhile.

II.                 Uses of Values

1.      help us determine whether we like something or not

2.      whether something is right or wrong

3.      whether it is important or not

-         with his values, a person can;

1.      plan his life

2.      set his/her goal

3.      adapt to the culture he/she belongs.


III.               Values- are desirable because they are proper and right for the

                         individual  himself for society. To identify and develop

                         good moral values, the individual has to know himself


IV.              Kinds of Values


  1. Common Classification of Values


1.      General Values- values which reflect  a society’s orientation and which are accepted by the majority.


Examples: sense of nationhood, enlightened and useful citizenship, democratic way of life, humanism


2.      Personal Values- the individual interpretation of general values


Example: honesty, fairness, charitableness, courtesy, self-discipline


  1. Classification on Who Exercises the Values


    1. Personal – the individual


Example: diligence, gratitude, honesty, self-reliance, fortitude, patience, self-discipline, humility, friendship, industry, obedience, perseverance, prudence, sincerity, responsibility.


    1. Group- bayanihan
    2. Societal- justice, respect for human rights, human dignity


  1. According to the Nature of the Benefits Expected



Category                                          Values

   1. Material and Physival                                 Health, comfort, safety

   2. Economic                                                  Productivity

   3. Moral                                                        honesty, fairness

   4. Social                                                        courtesy, charitableness

   5. Political                                                     freedom, justice

   6. Aesthetic                                                  beauty, symmetry

   7. Religious(spiritual)                          piety, clearness of conscience

   8. Intellectual                                     intelligence, clarity

   9. Professional                                               success and recognition

  10. Sentimental                                               love, acceptance


  1. According to the Nature of Their Beneficiaries


1. Other-oriented – friendliness, cooperation, kindness, hospitality, love for family,

                               concern for the general welfare, open-mindedness

2. Self-oriented – individuality, one’s drive for personal success, self-reliance, self-

                            discipline, self-improvement





If a handout is available online (e.g., a newspaper article) I might include the appropriate link to the information students need on this page.